Philadelphia Museum of Art Archives
Philadelphia Museum of Art Archives

Lloyd and Edith Havens Goodrich, Whitney Museum of American Art, Record of Works by Thomas Eakins Edit

Summary

Identifier
LEG

Dates

  • 1894, 1903, 1915-1986 (Creation)

Extents

  • 42 linear feet (Whole)

Agent Links

Notes

  • Abstract

    The Lloyd and Edith Havens Goodrich, Whitney Museum of American Art, Record of Works by Thomas Eakins consists mainly of typescript and manuscript papers, correspondence, and a variety of research and reference materials pertaining to Lloyd Goodrich's major published and unpublished works on American artist Thomas Eakins. This collection documents more than 50 years of Eakins scholarship, during which Goodrich published "Thomas Eakins: his life and work" (1933) and the revised and augmented monograph, "Thomas Eakins" (1982). A revision of the 1933 publication's catalogue raisonne section, intended as a separate volume, never reached the final stages before Goodrich's death, but represents a significant volume of material. Of note is correspondence with Thomas Eakins's widow, Susan Macdowell Eakins; Goodrich's transcriptions of Thomas Eakins's own correspondence, much of which is now lost; and his interview notes with Eakins's sitters, students, friends, and relatives, including Charles Bregler, Charence W. Cranmer, Frances Eakins Crowell, Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt, Elizabeth Macdowell Kenton, Frank B. A. Linton, Samuel Murray, Mary Adeline Williams, Lucy Landon Williams Wilson, and Francis Joseph Ziegler.

  • Processing Information

    These materials were arranged and described by Katherine Stefko, Bertha Adams, Adrianna Del Collo, and Courtney Smerz. Funded by a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

  • Access Restrictions

    The collection is open for research.

  • Use Restrictions

    The Lloyd and Edith Goodrich, Whitney Museum of American Art, Thomas Eakins Archives are the physical property of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Archives. The Museum holds literary rights only for material created by Museum personnel or given to the Museum with such rights specifically assigned. For all other material, literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. Researchers are responsible for obtaining permission from rights holders for publication and for other purposes where stated.

  • Preferred Citation

    [Item identification and date], [Series info.], Lloyd and Edith Havens Goodrich, Whitney Museum of American Art, Record of Works by Thomas Eakins, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

  • Alternative Format Available

    A portion of the material, primarily material from the "Catalogue raisonné" series, was microfilmed by the Archives of American Art (AAA) in July 1967. Microfilm is available from the AAA.

  • Acquisition and Custody Information

    Gift of Lloyd Goodrich and the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1985.

  • Historical Note

    Throughout his long and distinguished career as a writer and museum administrator, LLOYD GOODRICH (1897-1987) remained a devoted advocate of American art and artists, working tirelessly to elevate both their historic and contemporary status. He published several important monographs, including works on Thomas Eakins, Edward Hopper, Albert Pinkham Ryder, Winslow Homer, and Reginald Marsh, and organized major exhibitions about these and many other artists during his 57-year association with the Whitney Museum of American Art. At the time of his death, Goodrich was considered a preeminent figure in the American art world, and one of the foremost authorities on Eakins, Ryder, and Homer, artists on which he kept extensive research files throughout his life.

    Goodrich was born in Nutley, New Jersey on July 10, 1897, the youngest of Henry Wickes and Madeleine Lloyd Goodrich's five children. Goodrich's father was a lawyer with literary and artistic interests, and a liberal bent. His mother was an avid reader, particularly of Henry James. Goodrich's siblings, from oldest to youngest, were: Constance, Frances (who married Albert Hackett and, with him, wrote several famous screenplays including "It's a Wonderful Life" and "The Diary of Anne Frank"), William, and Caroline. Rather than following the family tradition of attending Amherst College, Goodrich opted to pursue a career as an artist. He enrolled in the Art Students League where he studied under Kenneth Hayes Miller from 1913-1915. Between late 1915 and Summer 1916, he studied under Douglas Volk at the more conservative National Academy of Design, and then under Hamilton Easter Field in Ogunquit, Maine. By the end of 1916, Goodrich returned to the Art Students League. Upon completion of his studies in 1918, Goodrich had a "loss of faith," deciding that while he had an innate sense of color, he lacked the draughtsmanship skills to sustain a successful career as an artist.

    After spending five years in the business world, Goodrich took a job in the religious book department of Macmillian Company in 1923. The following year, he married Edith Havens, a teacher of costume illustration at the YWCA, and began writing about art. His first article, on Winslow Homer, was published that year by The Arts, a progressive magazine subsidized by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. The magazine's editor, Forbes Watson, soon hired Goodrich to serve as associate editor of the magazine, a post he held until 1929, with the exception of an eleven-month hiatus between November 1927 and October 1928, when he and his wife lived in Europe and he assumed the role of the magazine's European editor. In 1929, Goodrich became assistant art critic for the New York Times and contributing editor for The Arts. The following year, Goodrich was commissioned by The Arts to write a book on his former teacher, Kenneth Hayes Miller.

    Around this same time, Goodrich became seriously interested in the art and life of Thomas Eakins, then a relatively under-appreciated artist. With the encouragement and initial financial backing of his boyhood friend, Reginald Marsh, Goodrich conceived the idea of writing the first monograph dedicated to Eakins. Marsh was married to Betty Burroughs, the daugther of Bryson Burroughs, the curator of the Metropolitan Museum of Art responsible for organizing a memorial exhibition of Eakins's work in 1917. Burroughs's son, Alan, had by this point published the first checklist of works by Eakins, in The Arts in 1924. Goodrich's monograph may never have materialized if it were not for his association with this magazine, or more specifically, with its patroness and her close associate, Julianna Force.

    Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a sculptor and one of the wealthiest women in early-20th-century America, played a major role in the progressive American art scene. In addition to underwriting The Arts, Whitney funded the Whitney Studio Club and its successor, the Whitney Studio Galleries, institutions dedicated to showing artists outside the established, academic circle. Julianna Force, Whitney's personal assistant and close friend, directed both these institutions. When Whitney committed to the founding of the first museum dedicated to American art in 1930, she appointed Force as its director. Force had met Goodrich through her involvement with The Arts on Whitney's behalf, and asked him to join the staff of the Whitney Museum of American Art as a writer even before it opened to the public. Goodrich initially declined, citing his commitment to finish the Eakins monograph, at which point Force offered him a salary to complete the book.

    With the financial backing of the book secured, Goodrich was free to concentrate on his research. Between 1930 and 1933, he travelled to Philadelphia several times to visit Susan Eakins, the artist's widow. Susan still lived in the house where Thomas had grown up and owned many of his unsold paintings. During these visits, Goodrich took pains to copy all of the primary source material Susan Eakins made available to him, including the couple's correspondence, the notebook Thomas kept while studying in Europe, and two record books which Susan and Thomas made of his works. Some letters Susan Eakins transcribed for Goodrich, editing them somewhat as she deemed necessary. Goodrich also interviewed many of Eakins's friends, sitters, relatives, students and other associates. Years later, he recalled, "I used to stay in the old Rittenhouse Hotel, and I used to come back in the evening after interviewing two or three people who had Eakinses, and I would sit up until midnight writing everything out that they had told me, while it was fresh in my mind." For each work of art he examined and identified, Goodrich made an individual catalog entry with extensive information, including physcial data such as the size, medium, and support, the signature, and its provenance and exhibition history. Goodrich also made a detailed sketch of each work, because at the time he was not using a camera. Goodrich's research resulted in "Thomas Eakins: His Life and Work," published in 1933 and including an extensive biography and a catalogue raisonne with 515 entries, far more works than anyone had previously identified.

    Following the book's publication, Goodrich took on progressively more important roles at the Whitney Museum of American Art, becoming Research Curator in 1935, Associate Curator in 1947, Associate Director in 1948, and then Director between 1958 and his retirement in 1968, at which point he became an Advisory Director and later, in 1971, Director Emeritus. Goodrich organized many important exhibitions for the Museum, including: "Winslow Homer: Centenary Exhibition" (1936); "Pioneers of Modern Art in America" (1946); "Albert P. Ryder: Centenary Exhibition" (1947); "Yasuo Kuniyoshi" (1948); "Max Weber" (1949); "Edward Hopper" (1949); "John Sloan" (1952); "Reginald Marsh" (1955); "Four American Expressionists: Doris Caesar, Chaim Gross, Karl Knaths, Abraham Rattner" with John I. H. Baur (1959); "Edward Hopper" (1964); "Edwin Dickinson" (1965); "Raphael Soyer" (1967); "Georgia O'Keeffe" with Doris Bry (1970); "Thomas Eakins" (1970); "Edward Hopper" (1971); and "Winslow Homer" (1973). During his tenure, the Whitney developed from a private collection into a major public cultural institution, moved to its present quarters designed by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton Smith in 1966, and built a major collection of work by living American artists.

    Goodrich's influence in the art world during these years extended well beyond the Whitney. In addition to his work on Eakins and the many catalogs produced in conjunction with Whitney exhibitions, Goodrich published monographs on Winslow Homer (1944, 1959), Albert Pinkham Ryder (1959), Edward Hopper (1971), and Reginald Marsh (1972). He also served on the editorial board of several important art magazines, specifically The Magazine of Art, The Art Bulletin, Art in America, New Art in America, and American Art Journal, as well as on the board of a number of art advocacy groups and government commissions. Between 1933 and 1934, he was in charge of the New York Regional Committee, Public Works of Art Project, part of the Works Project Administration, which hired artists to create public murals and sculpture. Between 1954 and 1974, Goodrich served on the National Council on Arts and Government, and through it, played a major role in the founding of the National Endowment for the Arts in 1965. In addition to more government support for contemporary artists, Goodrich advocated paying artists for lending works to exhibitions as well as giving them part of the proceeds from such shows. Goodrich recognized artists as among the country's most "underprivileged citizens," explaining "It is a paradox, sad but true, that many artists live by teaching others a profession in which they themselves don't make a living--except by teaching" (Bridgeport Sunday Post, January 17, 1965).

    Goodrich was also very concerned with the problem of forgeries in American art, presenting on this topic at the College Art Association of America in January 1942. Together with his wife Edith, Goodrich kept copious files on all known works not only by Eakins, but also by Ryder and Homer. In addition, he compiled material about dubious and fake works passed off as the work of these artists. In an attempt to remedy this troublesome problem for American artists in the future, he proposed and founded the American Art Research Council, a consortium of thirty museums and universities devoted to collecting written and visual records of works by contemporary American artists.

    By the early 1960s, Goodrich began plans for a revised version of his 1933 book on Eakins. Through his compilation of extensive archives on the artist, he had unearthed approximately 85 works by Eakins not included in the original publication. In addition, he had published only a very small portion of the Eakins correspondence, record books, and notebooks he had copied in the 1930s. These copies had grown enormously in importance over the years as some of the originals were destroyed following the death of Susan Eakins in 1938. Other letters survived, but passed to Charles Bregler and his wife, who prevented scholars from seeing or using the material. Thus, Goodrich's archives had become the single most important source for primary material about Eakins, and he fielded frequent requests from scholars seeking use of the material. Goodrich wanted to publish this material before granting others the right to do so.

    In 1965, Goodrich signed a contract with Harvard University Press and the National Gallery Art to produce the book. Initially, he hoped to publish the biography and catalogue raisonne at the same time. However, it became apparent from the amount of new research on Eakins since 1933, and the extensive additions to his own files and records, that more than one volume would be necessary. Time limitations and other commitments delayed the publication of the biographical portion, produced in two volumes, until 1982. Goodrich was still at work on the catalogue raisonne portion in 1987 when he died of cancer at the age of 89. The death of his wife, Edith, who had assisted him diligently in his research on Eakins and other artists for over fifty years, preceded his by three years. Prior to his death, Goodrich, in conjunction with representatives from the Whitney Museum of American Art, made plans for the disposition of his archival records related to Eakins, Homer, and Ryder. While the Philadelphia Museum of Art received his records related to Eakins, his Ryder material was given to the Department of Special Collections at the University of Delaware and his files on Winslow Homer were presented to the Graduate Center and the City University of New York.

    According to Lloyd Goodrich's 1982 assessment, THOMAS COWPERTHRAIT EAKINS (1844-1916) is recognized today as America's "strongest purely realistic artist" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Eakins is also the American artist most inextricably linked to the city of Philadelphia, the place in which he found both inspiration and despair throughout his career.

    Born in Philadelphia on July 25, 1844, Eakins was the first of five children of Benjamin and Caroline Cowperthwait Eakins. In the fall of 1857, the young Eakins entered the city's elite Central High School, and throughout his four years there received high marks in mathematics, science, and languages, particularly French, as well as drawing. Upon graduation he assisted his father as a calligrapher and an instructor of penmanship. When he failed to receive a teaching position at his alma mater in the fall of 1862, Eakins registered for classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (PAFA), also in Philadelphia. His earliest studies there were classes in drawing from antique casts and lectures in anatomy. In February 1863, he was admitted to the life drawing classes and apparently continued at the Academy until 1866. In 1864 when he became eligible to be drafted for the Civil War, Eakins paid the $24 fee to exempt him from conscription. The year after the war, Eakins was accepted for study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and sailed for Paris during the fall of 1866. His only time living outside of Philadelphia, Eakins began his studies at the Ecole, drawing from nude models and working in the studio of Jean-Léon Gérôme. Later, on his own, he began to paint. Before returning permanently to the states in 1870, Eakins made several excursions to other countries, including Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Belgium. He also spent approximately six months in Spain, specifically at Seville and Madrid. In the latter city Eakins visited the Prado, filling a notebook with his observations of the paintings he studied there.

    Upon his return to Philadelphia, Eakins set up a studio in his family's home and began painting, using family members as his subjects. During this time, specifically 1870 to 1874, Eakins painted a series of oils and watercolors epitomizing his ties to Philadelphia in his depictions of the sport of rowing on the Schuylkill River. As Darrel Sewell described in the catalog to a 1982 exhibition, through these works, Eakins brought "the memories, knowledge, and sentiment that he thought imperative for an artist to have. His motivation...was his enjoyment of the familiar landscape, his friendship and admiration for his skilled companions and his own personal enthusiasm for the sport." The paintings were Eakins's examination of the elements he considered most important for an artist to study--light, color and form.

    In the spring of 1871 Eakins exhibited for the first time in public at the third art reception of the Union League of Philadelphia, and received mixed reviews. During the next five years, Eakins participated in approximately a half-dozen exhibitions, including a few in Paris and London. In the hopes of attracting public commissions, he began painting life-size portraits of prominent individuals. He also painted "Grouse," a portrait of the dog owned by the photographer Henry Schreiber. It is the first known work that Eakins based on a photograph, which underscores the artist's interest in and use of photography in his paintings, a theme recently revisited by current scholarship. Eakins also continued his anatomy studies through the Jefferson Medical College, where he registered to attend the surgical demonstrations of Dr. Samuel David Gross and anatomy lectures with Dr. Joseph Pancoast. A mixed culmination to all these experiences came in 1876 with the Centennial International Exhibition, hosted in Philadelphia. Eakins showed five paintings in the art exhibition. However, his ambitious painting entitled, "The Gross Clinic," was rejected for its graphic depiction of an operation and was ignominiously moved to the Army Hospital.

    The fall of 1876 proved more fruitful for Eakins. He joined PAFA as a volunteer assistant to Christian Schussele, professor of drawing and painting, and as a dissection assistant to Dr. William W. Keen. He also met Susan Hannah Macdowell, a new student at the Academy who would become his wife in 1884. When Schussele died in 1879, Eakins was selected as his successor, and the following year he began his formal lectures. He also purchased his first camera, which as scholars today explain, he used like a sketchbook--making photographic records of what he saw. While the first half of the decade brought additional exhibitions and commissions for Eakins, including a portrait of the President of the United States for the Union League of Philadelphia, as well as his first commissioned sculpture for a Philadelphia merchant, the year 1886 began with disappointment and disgrace. In a class attended by female students, Eakins removed the loincloth of a nude male model. Several parents expressed outrage. In response, the chairman of the Committee on Instruction requested Eakins's resignation, which he submitted on February 9, 1886. In protest, 38 of Eakins students also resigned and established the Art Students' League of Philadelphia, so that Eakins could continue his life classes. This gesture of support, however, was unfortunately offset by the considerable coverage Eakins's dismissal received in the local press and national art publications. For more than a year, Eakins virtually stopped painting. To combat the acute depression, Eakins traveled to the Dakota Territory and for three months photographed and sketched cowboys. Upon his return, Eakins began lecturing in New York City, and again began to show in exhibitions, including PAFA's annual exhibition of 1891.

    Continued success came with the new century. In addition to receiving commissions, several of Eakins's portraits earned awards. From 1901 to 1909, Eakins served as a juror to annual exhibitions for the Carnegie Institute and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. In its annual exhibition of 1915, the latter institution featured the portrait of Mrs. Talcott Williams, which Eakins painted in the early 1890s. It was well-received by the press. By that time, failing eyesight had left the artist essentially housebound. Eakins died June 25, 1916. Not long after the artist's death, the Metropolitan Museum of Art held a memorial exhibition in November of 1917, with PAFA following suit a month later.

    While the posthumous exhibitions devoted to Eakins, which have carried into the 21st century, continue to solidify his reputation as one of America's greatest artists, they also underscore the irony of the contemporary criticism Eakins endured through much of his career. The realism Goodrich singled out as Eakins's most unique characteristic was usually the point of contention. In 1881, Earl Shinn, an old acquaintance and early supporter of Eakins, associated the "brutal exactitude" of his works to a "...scientific mind that has made the mistake of taking up art..." By 1894 such comments led Eakins to conclude, "My honors are misunderstanding, persecution [and] neglect, enhanced because unsought."

    Chronology

    July 10, 1897 LLOYD GOODRICH is born to Henry Wickes and Madeleine Lloyd Goodrich in Nutley, New Jersey.

    1913-1915 Studies painting under Kenneth Hayes Miller at the Art Students League.

    Fall 1915-Spring 1916 Studies painting under Douglas Volk at the National Academy of Design.

    Summer 1916 Studies painting under Hamilton Easter Field in Ogunquit, Maine.

    Fall 1916-1918 Resumes sudies at the Art Student League.

    1918-1923 Pursues a career in business. Four of these five years spent working in the steel industry.

    1923-1925 Works at Macmillan Company in the religious book department.

    January 12, 1924 Marries Edith Havens from Brooklyn, New York.

    1925-1927 Associate Editor for "The Arts."

    November 1927-October 1928 European Editor for "The Arts." With his wife Edith, Goodrich travels to France, Italy, England, Belgium, Holland, and Germany.

    1928-1929 Associate Editor for "The Arts."

    1929 Assistant Art Critic for "The New York Times."

    1929-1931 Contributing Editor for "The Arts."

    August 22, 1930 First child, David, born.

    1930 Joins staff of the Whitney Museum of American Art as researcher and writer of monographs on American artists. The Museum officially opens to the public on November 18, 1931.

    1930 Publishes "Kenneth Hayes Miller" (The Arts), about his former instructor.

    1931 Publishes "H. E. Schnakenberg" as part of the Whitney Museum of American Art's American artists series.

    September 28, 1933 Second child, Madeline, born in Fall River, Massachusetts.

    1933 Publishes "Thomas Eakins: His life and work."

    1933-1934 In charge of the New York Regional Committee, Public Works of Art Project, the part of the Works Project Administration which hired artists to create public murals and sculpture.

    1935-1947 Serves as Research Curator, Whitney Museum of American Art.

    1935-1986 Organizes several exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and wrote the accompanying catalog, including: "American Genre: The Social Scene in Paintings and Prints (1800-1935)" (1935); "Winslow Homer: Centenary Exhibition" (1936); "A Century of American Landscape Painting 1800 to 1900" (1938); "Pioneers of Modern Art in America" (1946); "Ralph Albert Blakelock: Centenary Exhibition" (1947); "Albert P. Ryder: Centenary Exhibition" (1947); "Yasuo Kuniyoshi" (1948); "Max Weber" (1949); "Edward Hopper" (1949); "John Sloan" (1952); "Reginald Marsh" (1955); "Four American Expressionists: Doris Caesar, Chaim Gross, Karl Knaths, Abraham Rattner" with John I. H. Baur (1959); "Edward Hopper" (1964); "Edwin Dickinson" (1965); "Art of the United States, 1670-1966" (1966); "Raphael Soyer" (1967); "The Graphic Art of Winslow Homer" (1968); "John Heliker" with Patricia FitzGerald Mandel (1968); "Georgia O'Keeffe" with Doris Bry (1970); "Edward Hopper" (1971); "Winslow Homer" (1973); and "Winslow Homer in Monochrome" with Abigail Booth Gerdts (1986).

    1941-1987 Life member of the Art Students League.

    1942-1950 Chairman of the editorial board of "The Magazine of Art."

    1942-1987 Founding member of the American Art Research Council, a consortium of museums devoted to collecting written and visual records about contemporary works of American art. During Goodrich's tenure as director of this organization, the Whitney Museum of American Art becomes a major center of scholarly research on mid-20th century American art.

    1942-1987 Trustee, American Federation of Arts; from 1957-1962 he serves as chairman of this organization, and from 1962-1987 is the hononary vice president.

    1943-1961 Member of the editorial board of "The Art Bulletin."

    1944 Publishes the monograph, "Winslow Homer" (Whitney Museum of American Art).

    1946-1970 Member of the editorial board of "Art in America" magazine.

    1946-1983 Commissioner of the National Collection of Fine Arts (later the National Museum of American Art), Smithsonian Institution; Goodrich is Commissioner Emeritus from 1983 to 1987.

    1947-1948 Associate Curator, Whitney Museum of American Art.

    1948-1954 Chairman, Committee on Government and Art.

    1948-1958 Associate Director, Whitney Museum of American Art.

    1954 Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

    1954-1974 Member of the National Council on Arts and Government. Through his involvement with this council, and as its vice-chairman from 1962 to 1974, Goodrich plays a major role in the founding of the National Endowment for the Arts.

    1955 Publishes essay "Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins," in "The One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition" catalog published by the Pennsyvlania Academy of Fine Arts.

    1956-1987 Vice president of the Sara Roby Foundation.

    1957 Contributor to the magazine, "New Art in America"

    1958-1968 Director of the Whitney Museum of American Art.

    1959 Publishes monographs on Albert P. Ryder and Winslow Homer as part of the Great American Artists series published by G. Braziller.

    1960-1963 Member of the Advisory Committee, Art for the White House.

    1960-1987 Member of the Advisory Committee, Archives of American Art.

    1961 Publishes catalog to the Whitney Museum of American Art collection in conjunction with associate director John I. H. Baur, "American Art of our Century."

    1965-1972 Member of the Board of Directors, The Edward MacDowell Association.

    1966 Oversees the completion of and move into the Whitney Museum of American Art's new quarters designed by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton Smith.

    1968 Whitney Museum of American Art receives by bequest the Hopper collection from the artists's widow, due in part to Goodrich's reputation as the outstanding scholar of Edward Hopper at the time.

    1968-1971 Advisory Director and Trustee of the Whitney Museum of American Art.

    1970 Organizes major retrospective of works by Thomas Eakins. Goodrich also writes the accompanying catalog and delivers a series of lecture in conjunction with this show.

    1970-1975 President of the Edith Gregor Halpert Foundation.

    1971 Publishes monograph, "Edward Hopper" (H. N. Abrams).

    1971-1987 Director Emeritus and Honorary Trustee, Whitney Museum of American Art.

    1972 Publishes monograph,"Reginald Marsh" (H. N. Abrams), a close friend of his from boyhood.

    1972-1987 Member of the editorial board of "The American Art Journal."

    1973-1985 Chairman of the Board of Managers of the Wyeth Endowment for American Art.

    1973-1987 Member of the Board of Directors of the Friends of American Art in Religion.

    1982 Publishes "Thomas Eakins"

    May 2, 1984 Edith Havens Goodrich dies.

    March 27, 1987 Lloyd Goodrich dies in New York City.

    1. (Cambridge, Mass.: Published for the National Gallery of Art [by] Harvard University Press, 1982) Goodrich, Lloyd, 1897-Thomas Eakins.

    2. (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1982) Sewell, Darrel, 1939-Thomas Eakins: artist of Philadelphia.

    3. [. . . with essays by Kathleen A. Foster ... [et al.] ; chronology by Kathleen Brown. (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2001) Sewell, Darrel, 1939-Thomas Eakins.

  • Scope and Content Note

    With the 1933 publication of the first monograph of the American artist Thomas Eakins, Lloyd Goodrich became one of the earliest modern writers to study the artist, whose posthumous reputation was only beginning to be revitalized. As this collection makes evident, Goodrich never lost interest in Eakins. Comprised of correspondence, drafts, extensive notes and lists, photographs, a variety of published references, and numerous photocopies, the collection documents approximately half a century of the research and writing Goodrich devoted to the artist. While this material focuses primarily on Eakins's life and oeuvre, it in turn serves as working evidence of Goodrich's lifelong advocacy of American art and artists. The collection also illustrates Goodrich's evolving methodologies and resources, as a first-time author to seasoned writer and museum administrator.

    The arrangement of the collection presents the material in two groups--the first is comprised of three series defined primarily by format, and consists of material Goodrich would have compiled for any or all of his studies. The second group consists of five series that document specific works by Goodrich that were published, presented, or, in the case of the catalog raisonné and dubious files, were ongoing projects, never completed.

    The first group begins with the "Correspondence and related material" series, which consists primarily of Goodrich's correspondence with other scholars of Eakins as well as graduate students requesting information or access to Goodrich's records of the artist. The "Research" series is comprised of Goodrich's general reference files on people and subjects related to Thomas Eakins and his work. The "People" subseries contains primary source material related to Thomas Eakins, his wife Susan Macdowell Eakins, and other contemporaries, such as students, sitters, and friends. The "Subjects" subseries contains research material on a variety of topics, such as the art schools at which Eakins taught and pertinent art and archival collections. The "Reference" series consists primarily of newspaper clippings, periodical articles, and books about Thomas Eakins that Goodrich did not write. Much of the material contains his marginal notations.

    The second group begins the "Dubious" series which underscores Goodrich's recognition as the preeminent authority on Thomas Eakins. Most of the material is correspondence with owners of possible works by Eakins who were referred to Goodrich or sought his advice in order to establish authenticity. Photographs, notes, and sketches by Goodrich are also included. The next four series document Goodrich's planned and executed publications and lectures. Records of Goodrich's first published study of the artist are in the "Thomas Eakins: his life and work (1933)." Material includes notes documenting Goodrich's earliest musings and outlines for this type of study, as well as research strategies and sources. Other material relates to the book's production and distribution, and some reviews are also included. Although there is some correspondence documenting Goodrich's attempts to locate works of art, he apparently transferred the more informative letters and related notes and sketches to the working files of a catalogue raisonné, which he began compiling approximately 30 years later. By the 1960s, Goodrich envisioned a two-volume publication that would revise his 1933 catalog. One volume would be devoted to a narrative of the artist's life, while the second would be a revised and expanded catalogue raisonné. His intention was realized only in part with the 1982 publication of "Thomas Eakins," a two-volume biographical study, and the subject of the next series. Most of the material consists of Goodrich's manuscript and typescript revisions, with copious research material mixed within the various drafts. The series also includes original and photocopied papers related to Goodrich's 1933 book, as well as material documenting the production and distribution of the catalog, including a complete proof of the book, and transparencies and negatives for the illustrations.

    Encompassing Goodrich's first to last thoughts on Thomas Eakins, the "Catalogue raisonné" series comprises the largest portion of material. Its dates span a 50-year work in progress that was never completed, and remains unpublished. Most of the material consists of the catalog entry forms, correspondence, notes and assorted clippings and ephemera related to the approximately 600 works of art Goodrich intended to include in his revised study, and which he originally maintained in 20 binders. Photographs of most of the works, which he kept in an additional 12 binders, are also included. In addition to this material, which served as Goodrich's "master catalog," the series contains his working notes, partial writing drafts, and additional research material, which substantiated most of the observations Goodrich noted in his binders. The final series, "Other writings," refers to additional works by Goodrich, most of which were written between 1925 and 1970. The series contains manuscripts, typescripts, notes, and other material related to articles, exhibition catalog essays, encyclopedia entries, book reviews, and lectures related to Eakins, as well as audiotapes and an extensive collection of slides. Some of Goodrich's published material on Thomas Nash, George Luks, John Singleton Copley, David Morrison, Pierre Auguste Rodin, Auguste Renoir, landscape painting, and abstract art are also included.

    Overall, much of the material comprising this collection shares certain characteristics that suggest Goodrich's working style. Based on certain annotations, Goodrich worked concurrently out of three "offices," and at each site he apparently kept a separate set of notes and other papers. Folders originally marked for "WMAA" designate papers Goodrich intended to use at the Whitney Museum of Art, while papers marked "1349" were for use at his New York City residence--1349 Lexington Avenue. Goodrich's home in Little Compton, located on the Sakonnet Point of Rhode Island, served as the third office space. Those papers are marked "Little Compton" or "Sakonnet." While some of these sets were exact duplicates and therefore removed, other seemingly similar sets have been retained because each contains different annotations, which at times vary only slightly. Which set he worked on first is not often obvious. The date Goodrich would note on many of his manuscript papers is also ambiguous. It could reflect the date he compiled, revised, or simply reviewed and "checked" the material. This collection also makes evident the assistance Goodrich received from his wife Edith, particularly in carrying out much of the library research. The amount and date span of papers obviously in her hand or marked "EHG," suggest her contribution was constant and significant.

    DIGITAL COLLECTIONS

    Two digital image collections have been created to accompany this finding aid: 1) Goodrich's interview notes from the 1930s; and 2) narrative excerpts from Goodrich's unpublished catalogue raisonné. Descriptions of these collections follow; digital images can be located within this finding aid by following the "camera" icon.

    The first group of images is comprised of unpublished notes from interviews conducted by Goodrich in the early 1930s with friends, family, sitters, colleagues and students of Thomas Eakins. The information Goodrich gathered in his interviews played a major role in informing the narrative of his 1933 biography, and photocopies of the notes were used in preparation for the 1982 revision. Extensive notes from his interviews with Susan Macdowell Eakins can be found in the "Susan Macdowell Eakins" sub-subseries of the "People" subseries of the "Research" series. Digital images of notes from interviews with other people such as Charles Bregler, Frances Eakins Crowell, Samuel Murray and Francis Joseph Ziegler are all located in the "Others" sub-subseries of the "People" subseries of the "Research" series.

    The second set of images, generated from two series, represents some of Goodrich's last thoughts on his never-completed catalogue raisonné. The image to be viewed first is in the "Correspondence" series, and is the letter written at the time Goodrich was transferring his Eakins records to the Philadelphia Museum of Art. In the enclosure to that letter, Goodrich recaps the project, giving a historical briefing of his research, explaining his system of cataloging and discussing the additional works of art by Eakins that were not included in his 1933 publication or simply recorded as a verso study to an "unconnected" work painted on the recto. The remaining images pertain to these additions as represented in the "Writing drafts" subseries of the "Master catalog" series. Taken from the manuscript pages he worked on during the mid-1980s, these narratives appear to be written in a style Goodrich intended for publication, as opposed to the style of his working notes. Images were also made of several explanatory and working notes within the draft that pertain to the additions. The manuscript, however, is incomplete, and describes only one-half of the total number of entries Goodrich planned to include in the catalog.

  • Language of Materials

    English.

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